(Note: to see the relevance of this to Push, viewtopic.php?f=55&t=202209
I've been trying the various scales on Push, and looking them up in Wikipedia, and as far as Flamenco is concerned, I have never read so much bullshit in my life, particularly how jazz/classical musicians seem to think the scales they are familiar with are related to Flamenco, particularly the so-called "Spanish" and "Gypsy Minor" scales as referenced on Push.
Here chord movement (tension/resolution, "question/answer") is a key factor in determining the relevance of chord progressions. For major and (Harmonic) minor scales, the dominant->tonic relation (e.g. G->C,E->Am) is the most important, followed by the sub-dominant->tonic (e.g. F->C, Dm->Am)
The dominant 7th intensifies the dominant -> tonic progression (G7->C, E7->Am).
Flamenco uses three distinct scales; Major, Harmonic Minor and (most importantly) Phrygian Mode* = ("Gypsy Minor"), often all three relative scales in the same key, a "Phrygian "Mode related to the Major and Harmonic minor in a given key signature depending on context.
(Context: if E Phrygian Mode in the following has a G#, I will refer to it as the E* Phrygian Mode)
It is true that one of the important modifications that Flamenco makes to the E* Phrygian mode is to change the G to a G#. This is done for two reasons:
1. The "Tonic" for Flamenco Phrygian is E (NOT Em) in this context; that is, the most important resolution is from F->E, a half-step, which makes this progression of primary importance for Flamenco.
2. The E chord is also a transition to the relative minor Tonic (Am) in the progression E->Am, or better yet, E7->Am, where the 7th is a passing note. (Similar as G7 to C in the related major.
The Em chord is NEVER played in this context, because it would destroy those resolutions and transitions in the "question"->"Answer" (dominant->tonic) relationship.
So for Flamenco in "E* Phrygian", there are really only two distinct scales; Major, and Harmonic Minor; the E simply switches the resolution from E -> Am ("Classical" music) to F -> E ("Flamenco").
Other chord substitutions within these related keys are used: Am -> -> G -> F -> E is the "Andalusian Cadence", and uses both G (G chord) and G# (E chord) notes in the progression.
Obviously progressions such as Dm ->Am -> F -> E and G7 -> C -> F -> E are also used, if one is aware of the uses of dominant and subdominant before resolving from F -> E.
(Dm -> Am -> E7 -> Am (Harmonic Minor)
ii -> vi -> iii7 -> vi (if related to C major)
iv -> i -> V7 -> i (if diatonic Harmonic Minor)
(F -> C -> G7 -> C) (Major)
IV -> I -> V7 -> I
The Bdim triad is used as a substitute for the dominant 7th in Major and Harmonic Minor, since:
(B,D,F) + G suggests G7 chord (Major) and
(B,D,F) + G# suggest E7 chord (Harmonic Minor)
The other accidentals in the scale (when used) come from secondary dominants in the same E tonal center:
In addition, the F7 is sometime used as a substitution for F this is the "Bhairav" scale in the key relative to E* (so you can play an F7->E progression if you program a ClyphX clip), where the D# serves as a "passing note"; and is sometime emphasized in melody for a "Blues" flavor, similar to the use of the "turnaround" (C7->B7)->E for Blues in E Major/Minor.... the Ab in C7 is the "Blues note: in the progression....
(Sometimes called "passing" notes/chords, since they pass to chords within the key, or can be used as "pivot" chords to change key...... (e.g., from C major to F major in the first and third examples above, from C Major to G in the second, and the progression (F7->Bb) -> A) to A Phrygian ....
Sometimes the "Melodic Minor" is used as a passing sequence to Am in the Harmonic Minor/"E Phrygian" contexts (replacing the F with an F# when the melody is rising in pitch from E(7) to A(m) ....
(e.g., the sequence of notes E->F#->G#->A, instead of E->F->G#->A), which reduces the interval between F->G# to F#->G# be more "melodic" as a melodic progression).
(In this context, one can consider the E7 in the progression E7->Am as a "secondary dominant" relative to
C Major, since it substitutes the accidental G# for G in that scale). Again, in traditional Flamenco, the Em chord would never be used in the related scales of E*, Am, and "Phrygian Mode".
Camaron de la Isla emphasized these accidentals in his cante (MUCH more than other singers, particular in Bulerias/Solea/etc.), which was responsible for his signature interpretations. However, for guitar these are heard quite often, especially starting with Sabicas, but all of them used them occasionally; they are part of the tradition.
But the MOST important progression is the IV->III progression (F -> E) (if using roman numerals related to the diatonic characterization of Western music.
The "Gypsy Minor" scale is actually the Flamenco Phrygian scale with G#, and is used for E and Bdim (Minor context) chords. However, it REALLY is the scale that expresses the dominant 7th chord (V) chord, where its root is the 5th of the major/minor scale in context..
So in the context of C major, the "Gypsy Minor" scale with root at G is really the dominant 7th chord of C Major, and in the context of Am, the "Gypsy Minor" scale with root at E is really the dominant 7th chord of A Harmonic Minor.
The classical "Phrygian" mode is the Phrygian scale with E natural, and is used for the C, G,G7 and Bdim (Major context) chords.
Either scale can be used with F,Am,Dm
I don't know what the hell the "Spanish" scale has to do with flamenco (it adds a G#, adds a Bb, and omits the B. E,F,G,G#,A,Bb,C,D,E
From a guitar perspective:
These concepts are transposed around the top of the Circle of Fifths for the various palos of Flamenco (e.g., Granadinas is in "B* Phrygian, Taranto is in F#* "Phrygian",many palos in "A* Phrygian" as well as "E* Phrygian" etc. This is because these keys use most of the open strings on the guitar as components of the basic chords.... E* and A* are particularly important, because the basic forms are "power chords" on the bass strings at the open (capoed) position (omit the 3rds), and thus are more powerful for rhythm accompaniment..
I discuss this in detail in the following document on my Website:http://www.flamencochuck.com/files/Musi ... Theory.pdf
(More extensive discussion in my guitar courses which now are available at no cost on my site).
(There is a difference in conceptual orientation between "harmonizing a melody" and "playing to a chord progression" (chord chart))